The need for migrants coincided with the growing global unemployment crisis, and the migrants enthusiastically responded to the calls for recruitment by the developed economies. At the same time, the governments of the developed countries inclined to develop policies which placed new mechanisms in order to better address their labor market needs.
The new immigration policies were selective in nature and targeted those migrants who can fully respond to the labor market needs and easily integrate with receiving communities, causing new challenges for the economies of sending countries. Against this backdrop, the need for formulating effective policies, which will enable the governments of the receiving countries to reconcile the interests of their populations and the demands of millions who are in search of better living standards, has become the most daunting issue to address. The answer to this question is certainly not an easy one and requires meticulous analyses of the issue considering the fact that we live in such a globally interconnected world that any decision taken in one country for action will have to take into account the possible adverse effects it may give rise in another.
For the sake of clarity and better understanding of such a complicated issue, the reader is also provided with an overview of recent international migration trends in the following chapter. The Recent Trends of International Migration: The patterns of the flow of people between countries are widely influenced by international economic, political and cultural interrelations.
International economic disparities, poverty and environmental degradation, combined with the absence of peace and security and human rights violations are all factors affecting international migration. Today, it is estimated that there are nearly million migrants are living in countries in which they were not born. According to the most recent UN statistics, Asia has some 49 million migrants, Africa 16 million and the Latin America and Caribbean region 6 million 6.
It is also worth to note that the composition and concentration of stock of migrants considerably differ from those of the past. According to a UN publication entitled Trends in Total Migration Stock, most of the migrants are concentrated in a small number of countries.
Immigration: Child care and schooling | Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
The predominant form of migration varies considerably from one part of the world to another as well. In Asia, for example, many migrants move on the basis of temporary labor contracts. In Americas and Africa, irregular migration is far more common phenomenon.
Countries such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA continue to accept migrants for permanent settlement and citizenship, while the countries of the Middle East usually admit international migrants for fixed periods. In Europe, the major preoccupation of recent years has been the arrival of asylum seekers from other parts of the world 8.
Migration to advance human development outcomes
However, the global oil crises have put an end to this type migration in most developed countries, saving only family and humanitarian migration. What renewed the attention of policy-makers on labor migration issue was nothing but a mere result of new economic, demographic and political developments. A good economic climate and years of economic growth in some developed countries have led to increasing employment, higher participation and lower unemployment rates.
Aging population of developed economies coupled with falling fertility rates created serious concerns over sustainability of labor markets. As a result, the capacity of these economies to digest a bigger stock of migrants was expanded. However, having faced with serious difficulties concerning the integration of previous stock of migrants into their societies, the governments of the receiving countries started to be more selective in their immigration policies.
They tended to target those migrants who can better respond to their labor market needs and easily integrate with their communities. The new policies also helped the receiving countries bring some sort of stability to the flow of migrants as well. Needless to say, such policies had created new implications on the economies of sending countries.
The loss of qualified human resources for many countries of origin is the one which has been most cited. The upshot is, the number of migrants continues to grow despite the changes in the immigration policies of the receiving countries to stabilize it. The current global job crisis seems to do nothing but fuel this tendency in the coming years. ILO statistics indicate that in , some ,5 million people around the world were unemployed, an increase of 2. Almost half of the unemployed people in the world are young people.
And young people are more than three times as likely as adults to be unemployed 9. Increasing number of women and men in developing countries are today looking for employment opportunities elsewhere as they are unable maintain a livelihood in their home countries. Needless to say, this promises a higher rate of growth in global stock of migrants.
This estimation is based upon a hypothesis which assumes that by allowing workers to move to areas where they are more productive and valued, migration leads to a direct increase in global output and income. International migration also has the potential of facilitating the transfer of skills and contributing to cultural enrichment. This said, one should also maintain that international migration entails the loss of human resources for many countries of origin and may give rise to political, economic or social tensions in countries of destination.
Almost half of these remittances are transferred between countries in the developing world. The leading recipients of remittances in were Mexico with 16 billion US Dollars a year, India with 9.
Remittances are now close to triple the value of the Official Development Assistance ODA provided to low-income countries and comprise the second-largest source of external funding for developing countries after Foreign Direct Investment FDI. In short, remittances now play an essential role in sustaining national and local economies in many recipient countries.
Remittances provide an important source of foreign exchange to recipient countries, boost the capacity of the financial sector and help to attract subsequent investment. Remittances evidently provide the most direct and immediate benefits to the people who receive them, many of whom, the World Bank has established, are amongst the poorest members of society Migration and mobility policies should ideally facilitate a mutual exchange of knowledge, capacity and human resources while preventing one directional movements and brain drain.
Seen from this point of view, migration holds potential benefits for poverty reduction and for fostering more equitable and sustainable global development. From a human rights-based and development oriented perspective, countries of origin and destination share the responsibility for managing migration. Maximising the good developments and minimising the risks from migration could include developing the human capital of migrants and investing in migration management cooperation between countries of origin and destination in social, economic and political terms.
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many Aboriginal Australian children were removed from their families and placed in institutions and foster homes, in what became known as the Stolen Generations.
Child migrants were adopted or brought up in children's homes, institutions, orphanages or foster care. A large portion of these children were used in slave labour by the churches in Australia. Many of these children experienced neglect and abuse while in institutional care. Child migrants are a specific group of "Forgotten Australians".
Child migration was a phenomenon associated with the migration of Bulgarian market-gardeners to Austria-Hungary in the second half of 19th and early 20th Century, due to the use of child labor mostly boys in market-gardening. Child labor brought master gardeners the biggest profit since children did not get paid but worked as apprentices for their keep only. Younger children helped in the gardens and learned gardening skills, while those who were already physically strong performed specialized gardening activities.
The Canadian Indian residential school system, founded in the 19th century, was intended to force the assimilation of the Aboriginal peoples in Canada into European-Canadian society. The Australian government had offered to welcome Maltese boys, aged between eight and 11, and girls aged between five and 10 years into Catholic institutions and promised to offer them employment supervised by the responsible Catholic authorities.
The practice of sending poor or orphaned children to the English settler colonies , to help alleviate the shortage of labour, began in England in , with the rounding-up and transportation of vagrant children to the Virginia Colony. The children and parents were not consulted, and often siblings were separated. Often children were lied to about their parents being dead and many faced abuse in their new homes.
During the Second World War , some 3. Most famous was the orphan train movement. During the Second World War, when Finland was at war with Russia, about 70 Finnish children were transported by train and boat mainly to Sweden, but also to Norway and Denmark.
These children are commonly referred to as war children. By the end of the war, thousands of children were adopted by their "new" parents. Category:Children's rights. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Canadian Indian residential school system. Main article: Home Children.
Law portal Society portal. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Journal of Education and Practice. Retrieved GIFT Retrieved February 9, Archived from the original PDF on BBC News. Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on First Nations Drum. Archived from the original on July 26, The Malta Independent online. Standard Publications Ltd. Archived from the original on 20 November The Goldonian. Goldonian Web. The Times. Times Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 26 February Child migrants Trust. Child Migrants Trust. Retrieved 28 July The Evacuees Reunion Association.
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Retrieved 28 April Transnational child protection. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Additionally, significant numbers migrate from one rural area to another, sometimes across borders.