Amory's description of "simple stone cottages" is a misleading depiction of the great Lodge house at Nahant. It stands on a jutting point of rock on the northeast corner of the shore.
There is no gentle beach; even a calm sea makes a crashing sound as it wears on the rock. The house is a gray stone structure of the same hue and texture as the rock on which it stands. It faces as directly away from the land and its neighbors as is physically possible, staring face-on into the great "'or'easters" that crash the ocean into New England in the late winter and early spring.
The Lodges lived at Nahant the requisite number of months each year to be exempt from Boston's Democratic taxes; Lodge declared Nahant his official residence when he first entered politics. He was influenced by this craggy shore as much as by Boston society. Lodge was of strong New England stock.
To understand the quality of this man, one must grasp the personal Puritan strength that was associated with the land he lived on and the habits he learned as a small boy. His association with great men in his father's house from the earliest time that he could remember promotes the image of a boy of extreme confidence who expected perfection in all his acts. But Henry Cabot Lodge was of Boston, too.
The toughness, aloofness, and perfection of the traditional Yankee New Englander were disguised by the dress, poise, charm, good manners, and genteel habits of a proper Bostonian. Lodge could never be the complete Bostonian; as a Senator he was "too political. Amory described the heritage that combined Puritan toughness with Brahmin polish: Boston's well known Lodges are descended from merchants on both sides of the Family, going back as far as the city's Family-founding merchants go. The late Henry Cabot Lodge's father was a particularly decisive Bostonian.
One evening he looked at his son with displeasure. At another time, the elder merchant, walking on a dark street with his son, was accosted by a tramp. He knocked the man down. It is little wonder the son, later the deadly foe of Woodrow Wilson and the League of Nations, inherited his oftendescribed "cool and distant" manner from such a background. Parkman, a very "Proper Boston Lady. Parkman an inspired teacher. Lodge then moved up to the higher school of a Mr. Thomas Russell Sullivan, another "Proper Bostonian. While Lodge was in this school, from to , some of the forces which would shape the rest of his life became discernible.
He was introduced to the Classics for the first time and the discipline of that study would do much to create the scholar of later years. He also developed the initial powers of acute observation that would serve him so well later: If a boy did not find in these schools the valuable education to be gained by contact with his fellows, the difficulty was in the boy, not in the opportunity which seemed to be in all ways sufficient to those who took advantage of it. Dixwell's were subjected to algebra and plane geometry, a smattering of French, and "declamation.
A small, neat, rather dry and businesslike person, he inspired his students more with respect than affection. He exhibited the same impatience with lazy minds which characterized Mrs. Under his direction, Cabot developed a talent for public speaking. Like many orators since the time of Demosthenes, he had difficulties in the beginning, but by the time he left Dixwell's his efforts were consistently being rewarded with the coveted "18," which 6Lodge, Early Memories, p.
He was always near the bottom of the list in deportment and, even though he was apparently not well liked, he was the leader of the "rabble rousers" of the school. Garraty speculates that this lapse may have been from laziness or "a result of the social pressure of his fellows. In , Lodge's father died and Cabot began the profoundly deep association with his mother that would pervade his existence until her death.
He apparently developed a need to justify and explain all his actions to her and felt a great need for her approval and support. For this approval and support of "the" woman in his life, he would turn to his wife after his mother died; there is a remarkable similarity between the two women and in the kind of influence they exercised over Lodge. After his wife's death, he was very lonely; this softening force in his life and his 7Ibid.
Charles Sumner had been a guest in his home many times, and his respect for the Senator as well as his enthusiasm for the Union apparently shaped the embryo of the intense patriotism that would characterize all his actions and utterances later. He developed an intense distrust of England as a result of her condescension toward the Confederacy and slavery. With the natural personal identification problems of adolescence, he combined as many additional reasons to doubt his role and identity as any boy could.
He was the only male in a house of doting women and was spoiled. His photographs from this time show a petulant and sardonic posture and expression that approaches dourness. His face is round and almost cherubic. In a class photograph at Mr. Garraty speculates logically that had his wife been alive at the time of the League debates his position would have been the same but his methodology less aggressive.
The clearest revelation of Anglophobia on Lodge's part is in those Senate speeches on foreign policy issues that relate to England; see especially his speeches on the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, the Panama Canal tolls debate, and his arguments against the British Commonwealth possessing six votes in the proposed League of Nations.
Dixwell's he, like the house at Nahant, is postured as indirectly to his fellows as possible, and appears to be sourly turning his face from the camera. In June of , the Lodges traveled to Durope. During this trip, Cabot was tutored by Constant Davis, whose influence he later described: [He was] one of the best, one of the most fortunate and most salutary influences which ever came into my life. Under his guidance, I began to get a real education and to regard lessons as something other than an affliction devised for the torment of boys. The second was Henry Adams, whose influence at Harvard caused Lodge to be interested in the field of American History, led him to one of the first Ph.
Lodge enrolled at Harvard in the fall term of His four college years, like the years of the Civil War, found him involved in transitional turbulence. He entered Harvard under an older, traditional system of education and was graduated as one of the first products of an elective system.
Although Lodge took advantage of the system to lighten his own load, later he became an opponent of the educational freedom that had allowed him to drop his classical Greek language study. His Harvard years helped make the "scholar in politics" a reality. Henry Adams introduced him to the excitement of historical detective work and to the thrill of the possibility of making a contribution to human knowledge. When he was graduated, Lodge married and spent a year in Europe honeymooning. Afterwards, he passed a bar examination from a friendly Boston judge who was fully aware that he would never practice law and limited his questions to constitutional matters.
In June, , he received his doctoral degree in American History from Harvard. He began teaching American Colonial History there in the subsequent fall term. During the period when Lodge had been attempting to decide the course of his future with the advice of Adams and the guidance afforded in his graduate study, he was also assisting Adams with the editing of the North American Review. In effect, his course was decided before it became necessary to make a decision.
As Lodge began teaching at Harvard at the age of twenty-six, his aloof Brahmin personality and the scholarly perfectionism of his character were well formed. His staunch patriotism was an established part of his political opinions.
A complete picture of Lodge's character requires a description of his partisan qualities as a politician. His active political interest began at the same time as his teaching career.
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The political role of the total partisan was not an aspect of Lodge's character that was systematically developed like his scholarly discipline. His Republican regularity was generated almost as a defense mechanism. Political Development The description in the foregoing section paints Lodge in proportions that tend to be heroic. He is often remembered by his friends and supporters as something of a hero just as he is memorialized by his enemies as a villain.
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Both of these extreme interpretations are usually a result of impressions made by the partisan nature of his personality. The formative experiences of the young Republican partisan reveal under scrutiny that neither of these interpretations is true. Lodge is no hero with a tragic flaw, although the character is cut from that kind of cloth; he was born to high place but was active in a profession that recognized no high place. As such he chose to be a faithful member of the Republican Party for rational but human reasons based on experiences that made the partisan politician a viable role for him to play.
The basis for these conclusions comes from investigation of his early political meddling, especially his bitter experiences with the abortive Fifth Avenue Conference, his early political successes in Massachusetts, and the confirmation of his partisanship when he refused to bolt the Blaine ticket with the Mugwumps in As he became a partisan, Lodge was also testing his talents as a political speaker.
He was a friend of Brooks Adams, and the two young men were always eager to be involved in any venture of Henry Adams. While the older Adams was not interested in office for himself, he was concerned with the state of public affairs. He wanted to create a party "of the centre" whereby he and his intellectual friends could generate enough electoral power 13 to influence the major parties toward reform.
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With the help of Lodge and Brooks Adams, he convened a small group dedicated to ending "Grantism" in Washington and halting the "waving of the bloody shirt. Also see Garraty, Lodge, pp. Lodge did not appear to be involved in anything more serious than the fervent discussion of public issues by a group of intelligent young men. Henry Adams actively began to plan for the moderate party that the Conference was to produce in the Spring of Carl Schurz was chosen to figurehead the group. Lodge and other members were busy making contacts and building an organization.
When the Conference was held a year later, it was very unproductive for a year's hard work of preparation. Those attending the meeting mumbled a few moral platitudes from floor and platform, and made vague demands about a good man for President; it was over in three hours. Lodge interpreted a few letters from undistinguished citizens as a record of 17 significant public favor for the Conference.
He was convinced that, as soon as the Republicans nominated James G. Blaine, the Conference would be confirmed as a third party powerful enough to demand platform concessions or even 16Garraty, Lodge, pp. The major parties did not react according to plan. The Republicans rejected Blaine and nominated Rutherford B.
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The "figurehead," Schurz, dashed immediately back to the party. When the Democrats picked Samuel J. Tilden of New York as their candidate, the reformers were thoroughly confused and disorganized. Lodge observed the lack of reform promises in the Republican platform and Hayes' "bloody shirt" campaign and, in the belief that he was upholding his principles, cast a disconsolate ballot for Tilden. By this time, he had reacted to his severe disappointment in the inability of the Conference to accomplish anything of substance, the ineptness of the reformers when not faced with the exact enemy that they had set out to defeat, and the alacrity with which all but a bitter few retreated to the party ranks when the movement appeared to be struggling rather than succeeding.
However, Lodge's first serious political activities occurred as a result of the Conference. His negative reactions to the reformers' failure to act and his experiences with partisan successes over the next two years were initial influences in the formation of a strong partisan. Following the interests of the independents, Lodge attended a local primary meeting and was selected a delegate to the state Republican Convention.